Tuesday, November 18, 2008
Saturday, November 15, 2008
Tuesday, November 11, 2008
The Concert Sponsored by Exodus Band in Aid of the KBC Church building took place on 10th of this month.
Some of the CAU students participate in the rock concert. Yeah, from the video, here are the participants-
Vocals: Badap 7th Sem. (Megalaya)
Backing Vocals / rythm: Kakai 7th sem (Manipur)
Rythm Guitar: Kenny 5th Sem (Mizoram)
Bass Guitar : Hriata 3rd Sem (Mizoram)
It was a great night, some nu-metal song palyed by Exodus were fantastic. Local bands and solo were also nice. Enjoying a concert with Commando(?) was another thing.
The other negative thing is the unclear video.
Thursday, October 9, 2008
Jethro Tull (1674-1741)
Born:1674 at Basildon, Berkshire
Died: 1741 at Shalbourne, Berkshire
At the age of seventeen, Tull matriculated at Oxford, to St. John's College, on 7th July 1691, but appears to have taken no degree. He was admitted as a student of Gray's Inn on 11th December 1693; and called to the Bar on 19th May, 1699. In his admission entry, he is stated to be of two years' standing at Staple Inn, and to be the only son and heir apparent of Jethro Tull, of Howberry in Oxfordshire.
After being admitted as a barrister, Tull made a tour of Europe and, in every country through which he passed, was a diligent observer of the soil, culture and vegetable productions. On his return to England, he married, in 1699, Susannah Smith, of Burton Dassett (Warwickshire). They had two children named after themselves and he settled, with his new family, on his father's farm at Howberry, in the parish of Crowmarsh Gifford, just across the Thames from Wallingford. Determined to improve agricultural methods and increase yields, he pursued a number of agricultural experiments there. By intense application, vexatious toil, and too frequently exposing himself to the vicissitudes of heat and cold in the open fields, he contracted a pulmonary disorder, which, not being found curable in England, obliged him a second time to travel, and to seek a cure in the milder climates of France and Italy. He returned, considerably improved in health, but greatly embarrassed in his fortune. Part of his property in Oxfordshire, he had sold and, before his departure for the Continent, had settled his family on a farm of his own, called Prosperous Farm, in the parish of Shalbourne, near Hungerford. There, he revised and rectified all his old instruments and designed new ones suitable to the different soils of his new farm; and demonstrated the good effects of his horse-hoeing culture. But though Tull was successful in demonstrating what might be done by improved culture, he was not able to turn it to his own advantage. His expenses were enhanced in various ways, but chiefly by the stupidity of the workmen employed in constructing his instruments, and in the awkwardness and maliciousness of his servants, who, because they did not or would not comprehend the use of them, seldom failed to break some essential part or other, in order to render them useless.
The drill-husbandry had been probably known and practiced for ages; but was first adopted upon a regular and permanent plan by Tull, who professed to have caught the idea from the vine-culture upon the Continent, and to whose ingenious mind the mechanism of an organ suggested the rudiments of an implement for the delivery of seed in drills. "It was named a drill," he says, "because when farmers used to sow their beans and peas into channels or furrows by hand, they called that action drilling" and it could sew three rows of seeds simultaneously. Later, he devised a horse-drawn hoe to clear away weeds
Tull became a Bencher of Gray's Inn on 5th May 1724. About this time, he was prevailed upon, by some of the neighbouring gentlemen, who were witnesses of the practical utility of his system, to publish his theory, illustrated by an account of it in practice, which he undertook to do, at no inconsiderable expense, and, at a time too, when he was much harassed in his pecuniary affairs. His first publication was a 'specimen' only, in 1731; which was followed, in 1733, by 'An Essay on Horse-Hoeing Husbandry' folio; which was translated into French by Du Hamel.
In the course of thirty years culture of his own grounds under every disadvantage of ruined health and embarrassed circumstances, this enthusiastic genius reduced the tillage, seeding, and weeding of land to a system, which being founded in nature and philosophical truth, no length of time will be able to overturn. For, despite initial resistance to Tull's revolutionary ideas, they were eventually adopted by large landowners and, in time, formed the basis of modern agriculture. Most subsequent drilling and hoeing implements were either copies, or improvements upon the invention of Tull; and his book, in which theory and practice are properly combined, was long in popular esteem. Whatever were his defects, it would probably be difficult to name a man, whose works have conferred a more solid and permanent benefit upon his country. Yet, whilst so many others, for services of a very different nature and tendency, have enjoyed the most splendid rewards, Jethro Tull, whose honest labours were to contribute to the feeding and the employment of countless millions, was suffered to pine out his days in misery and distress. His reward consists in being recognised by posterity as the illustrious 'Father of British Agriculture'.
Tull died at Prosperous Farm on 21st February and was buried, in his native village of Basildon, on 9th March, 1741.
Today, India is pushing ahead with a Blue Revolution, the rapid increase of fish production in small ponds and water bodies, a boon to small farmers, the nation's nutrition and its gross domestic product.
CIFA technician holds a handful of common carp fry, while workers net carp from a pond
Workers net an experimental pond full of catla, rohu, miral, silver, grass and common carp at CIFAThe Indian fisheries sector, which 50 years ago produced only 600 000 tonnes of fish, today produces 5 million tonnes, including 1.6 million tonnes from freshwater aquaculture. Although the yield from marine fisheries has stagnated, freshwater aquaculture is growing at a healthy 6 percent a year.
How did the Indians achieve this increase and how far can the Blue Revolution go?
"Fish culture was an art in India. We had to make it a science," said Dr V.R.P. Sinha, the founding director of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), India's largest centre of its kind and the source of much of the science that has driven the growth of Indian inland aquaculture.
The institute began the challenging task of turning what was a minor village tradition into a science that not only could increase the tonnage of fish per volume of water but also cope with inevitable problems that come with more intensive production, such as how to feed fish economically and how to deal with sudden outbreaks of disease brought on by crowded conditions.
Founded only 11 years ago, CIFA was born on a tract of empty land not far from the Bay of Bengal in Orissa State, about nine hours by train south of Calcutta. Today, it has over 500 ponds, laboratories, training facilities and hatcheries and conducts research on carp, catfish, prawns and molluscs. Sixty-eight scientists busy themselves with problems in every area of fish farming, from genetics to health, from nutrition to transfer of technology to the village.
"I hired my scientists young; I was telling them what to specialize in since we were all primarily zoologists. Today, these pioneers have gone far, they are directors of other institutes," said Sinha.
Asked for assistance by the Government of India, FAO was there to help CIFA get started.
"There was continual input from FAO in the form of fellowships, equipment and consultancies. The fellowships especially were sorely needed because we had no funds to send scientists abroad. With FAO's help, we sent them to Hungary, Yugoslavia and even a few to the United States," he said.
India farms 1.6 million tonnes of freshwater fish per year. Is that the limit of domestic demand?
Not at all, according to CIFA's current director, Dr S. Ayyappan. The Indian market can absorb an estimated 4.5 million tonnes. Of the 2.2 million hectares of freshwater bodies, only 800 000 hectares are currently utilized. Even India's vast distances, hot climate and vegetarian tradition do not place insurmountable obstacles in the way of expansion.
"While it is true that India is known as a vegetarian culture, in fact 55 percent of Indians are non-vegetarian. Our present annual per caput consumption of fish is 8 kilos per person, while the global average is 12 kilos. So we feel we have a lot of room to grow," Ayyappan said.
Outside his air-conditioned office, the midday temperature is 37 C or almost 100 F. How do farmers prevent excessive spoilage? Fish is packed on ice and trucked long distances in refrigerated trucks. If the ice melts, a stop is made at an ice plant en route to redress the fish, which is sold fresh.
India is very much a nation that helps itself, for example, building a huge manufacturing sector from virtually nothing at Independence in 1947. Another Indian virtue is creating technology and products that may seem somewhat old-fashioned to trendy Westerners but are suited to Indian conditions. A 1998 edition of the solid all-Indian car, the Ambassador, for example, looks exactly like a 1958 version. Putting out a new model every year is considered a luxury. Ayyappan himself, a hands-on manager, is leader of a project that has developed a low-cost method of treating sewage through aquaculture. Although the treated water is not potable - as would be the output of an expensive, state-of-the-art Western plant - it can be used for agriculture, again appropriate for Indian conditions.
Notwithstanding such self-sufficiency, the director stressed that in aquaculture science he needs and welcomes suitable assistance from more advanced countries. "We really need study tours of three to four months for our scientists to learn new techniques. We need to expand our research, in genetics, for example.
"You will see that in the next 10 to 15 years India will be the leader in the world," he said. "We are slow but sometimes it is better to be slow. In India, technical support is of a high order. The science is here."
Dr Ayyappan can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org; or c/o CIFA, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, 751002, Orissa, India.
20 August 1998
More in this series:
Aquaculture: from laboratory to village
FAO, midwife to India's top aquaculture centre
Treating sewage by aquaculture